Technical Papers
Biomimetic Eye Modeling & Deep Neuromuscular Oculomotor Control
Event Type
Technical Papers
Registration Categories
TimeWednesday, 20 November 20199:21 - 9:42
DescriptionWe present a novel, biomimetic model of the eye for realistic virtual
human animation. We also introduce a deep learning approach to
oculomotor control that is compatible with our biomechanical eye
model. Our eye model consists of the following functional components:
(i) submodels of the 6 extraocular muscles that actuate realistic eye
movements, (ii) an iris submodel, actuated by pupillary muscles, that
accommodates to incoming light intensity, (iii) a corneal submodel and
a deformable, ciliary-muscle-actuated lens submodel, which refract
incoming light rays for focal accommodation, and (iv) a retina with a
multitude of photoreceptors arranged in a biomimetic, foveated
distribution. The light intensity captured by the photoreceptors is
computed using ray tracing from the photoreceptor positions through
the finite aperture pupil into the 3D virtual environment, and the
visual information is output by the eye via an optic nerve vector. Our
oculomotor control system includes a foveation controller implemented
as a locally-connected, irregular Deep Neural Network (DNN) that
conforms to the nonuniform retinal photoreceptor distribution, and a
neuromuscular motor controller implemented as a fully-connected DNN,
plus auxiliary Shallow Neural Networks (SNNs) that control the
accommodation of the pupil and lens. The DNNs are trained offline
through deep learning from data synthesized by the eye model itself.
Once trained, the oculomotor control system operates robustly and
efficiently online. It innervates the intraocular muscles to perform
illumination and focal accommodation and the extraocular muscles to
produce natural eye movements in order to foveate and pursue moving
visual targets. We additionally demonstrate the operation of our eye
model (binocularly) within a recently introduced sensorimotor control
framework involving an anatomically-accurate biomechanical human
musculoskeletal model.